Its a shame Nigeria celebrates bad elections – Idris Wada
***Says the country is doomed if electoral reforms are not carried out immediately
Immediate past Governor of Kogi State Captain Idris Wada in this interview said Nigeria is doomed if amendment of the electoral act is not effected immediately
What manner of reform is required in the electoral system to bring us close to the success of the Option A4 of the June12, 1993 election, to put in place a system that will be a check onto itself?
I don’t think we should continue in the same circle, I think the solution is for the national assembly to pursue the amendment of the electoral act, yes there was a bill before the president to sign, he did not sign, he had his reasons, but that has been overtaken by a new national assembly, so the 9th National Assembly should rework it and send back to him for assent. They should find a way of moving forward with those necessary amendments. We need continuous improvements, life is not static, you were talking of the 1993 June 12th election Option A4, in the 21st century it would be ridiculous for Nigerians to start queuing up behind candidates. In 1993 it was appropriate because it was an improvement but we are in the age of sophistication, we have the internet now, we have advanced technology, your mobile phone is personal to you, mine is personal to me. All my details are in their database of the service providers server. We have done this voters card, every voter in Nigeria now must have the PVC that is the foundation of our electoral system. So we need to bring our laws up to date to accommodate that then learn from each election. So, the president’s refusal to sign, he has his reasons. The National assembly if they are desirous of an improvement in our electoral law they should communicate to the Presidency and see what are the areas the president is not happy about, reach a compromise that is what democracy is all about, it is about compromises. If we stay like this for another three years without reforming our electoral law then the next election would be worst, all this statements by INEC that it would be better will be mere statements. On the day of the election INEC would have no control. INEC is bringing strange people to conduct election, they are not full time staff of INEC very few of them are permanent staff. A temporary staff if he commits an offence the worst you can do to him is you will not use him the next time but if he is a permanent staff you can punish the person. For me I don’t blame the president because he has many issues to look at and if he decides he is not going to sign it you and I may not know from what angle he is seeing it. The best thing to do is communication between the national Assembly and the Presidency. The Non Governmental Organizations (NGO) should look at these thing and make it top of discussion, get the two parties to talk and come up with a common stand that we really need a new electoral law. There is no doubt from the experiences so far, it is getting worse. A situation where we are patronising violence as a way of conducting election what ever votes you pack once you succeed in dumping them on INEC and is written out you are declared. Nigeria is beyond that, we are the beacon of Africa, people look on to us to do things the right way so all of us should not be comfortable with the quality of elections that we have now. So I fully support a review of the electoral act but whatever the differences are between the Presidency and the national assembly it is time for communication to resolve those issues so that the nation can move forward electorally. I think INEC is limited as to what they can do. What they can do are suggestions but it is between the National Assembly and the presidency to actualise it.
The judiciary has been playing significant role in our democracy and sometimes that role becomes antithetical to development as they become culpable in derailing the democracy what is your take?
For me remember the law is an ass, it is a statement and is subject to interpretations, well any English sentence is subject to interpretations as it can be viewed differently by two or more people. So I don’t blame the judiciary, we are the ones that are taking cases to them when we have internal mechanisms within our political parties to resolve issues, some bypass those mechanisms or the issues are mishandled by the leaders of the political parties involved, so the judiciary is put on the spot to interprete what the law says on each of those issues brought to them. So I don’t blame the judiciary but the organizational set up of our political parties where membership is not driven by ideological directions but by other motivations, hence, all kinds of people come together who are not ready to compromise or reach understanding on the issues but run to the courts. If you empower the courts by running to them for internal family matters of a political party you can not blame the judiciary, they will give you judgements, and different judges can read the law differently, that is not corruption but interpretation of the law and so if we want to avoid that, what to do is to ensure elections must be free and fair both internal election within the political party and internal elections that allow people to reach public office so that people can be accountable knowing that if you go for election, the true feelings of the electorate will be reflected in the kind of people who are elected and when those elected know that their fate is in the hands of the people, they will behave better than what we are seeing today where godfathers impose people or Godfathers disorganise people’s carriers, it doesn’t work well. Advanced democracies that we are copying don’t do that, anybody can emerge from anywhere. Look at what is happening in the US this week, one 24 year old boy is destabilising somebody who has been in the senate for 30 years, a young boy of 24 years because of the issues of the moment. This racism matter, the black life matter and the injustices, insecurity. All these are affecting peoples lives and they are reflecting that in the kind of leaders they elect. Suddenly they now found that the man that has been there for 30 years has not protected their interests so they want to try the young man. The young man has no money, in Nigeria here you cannot go anywhere without money. So these are the issues that are affecting our democracy. However, I believe that over time we will mature and come to a point where truth will prevail and we will start making progress, so these are my own views.
You Governed Kogi for four years and that State today is enmeshed in high level of insecurity as if the authority is helpless, what is your take?
You can’t compare what is going on now with what happened when I was Governor. Nigeria has changed drastically over the last five years. Security issues are becoming more complex. This issue of travelling from Abuja to Lokoja, in those days you don’t think about it, you just enter your car and drive but now at every point you are afraid of being kidnapped, somebody can just emerge from the bush, block the road and you are kidnapped and they will be asking for millions before you are released if you are lucky, because they kill anyhow, it wasn’t like that in those days. So I don’t believe in comparing, the Governor must be doing his best. But how do you address a situation whereby at any point on the road between Lokoja and Abuja or between Lokoja and Okene or Lokoja and Itobe to Anyigba people can just jump on to the road, stop you, kidnap you, kill you and carry your properties. How, it requires sophisticated security architecture which we don’t have, we need drones, satellite imaging, we need sophisticated security architecture to do it. Or you put in place dedicated patrols which is expensive, because it is like having patrol cars running up and down, well equipped with modern security gadgets, with more sophisticated guns than the AK47 that these bandits are using. Our country has been infiltrated by all kinds of bandits including Bokoharam, herdsmen, criminals with reckless abandoned. During our time we had clear synergy of the security and the range of crimes were manageable, the current security situation now is sporadic, they come from anywhere in many directions; its Abuja road today, Okene road tomorrow, Itobe the next day after, how do you cope? What can the Governor do? So I think this idea of community policing is very important, we need to get the police emanating from each community where everybody is his brother’s keeper and information flows for the bigger security agencies to plan better and be able to predict these people and attack and eliminate them, that is the way I see it. We need to go back to the drawing board.
In a situation where the politicians are complicit in giving out guns to criminals especially during election?
It is sad, and what are we doing about it? We are not doing any thing, are you seeing any meaningful approach to addressing those kinds of things, we have been crying about thuggery talking about election violence and all that, who has been jailed for perpetrating violence in an election? Who has been arrested and prosecuted? Why are we not doing so? Elections improve from lessons we learn from occurrences. We need to identify that in a particular election these are the problems that came out, you address them, you arrest and you punish, it acts as a deterrent so the next election would definitely be better, but in our case these things happen, when people acquire power the people who help them come into power are forgiven. We wait, another four years we start the whole circle again. I think this is what is happening. We are not really addressing the issues. Look at what happened during the PDP primary in 2019 at the tail end of a long primary exercise, people came with guns and shot into the stadium, killed people, wounded some people, scattered the ballot papers, that is what brought about litigation and the supreme Court ruling you were asking about. Who has been arrested? who has been prosecuted? So would you be surprised if it happens in another primary tomorrow? There is nothing to stop anybody from not disrupting and people who sponsored that probably they have benefited, so next time they see it as a viable way of conducting primary so why do you waste your time going round local Governments and talking to people and party leaders and delegates and all that, when you can wait on the night and by 1.30am you come out with guns and scatter the whole thing and make sure your candidate wins, that is the situation we are in. Yet we are not sincerely addressing these things. So until there is that sincerity of purpose in addressing national security issues, pockets like primary elections, general elections, all those conventions and things like that where people gather. We should have an architecture and have a way of doing this thing in such a manner that there is dignity and there is respect and there is a meaning to it and there is purpose that we are doing it. It is not just an exercise and these things cost a lot of money. The political parties gather money to prosecute conventions, primary, elections and all that and if it is disrupted, all that money is lost, they are not achieving the purpose. So, it is something we need to take seriously, examine it, address it and learn lessons from it. The lesson we learnt from Kogi should apply in Ekiti, Edo, Oyo, Kaduna, Sokoto, Borno and wherever. We should be improving these things. It doesn’t matter which political party. We are a nation, a country that gave birth to these political parties. If we don’t learn, we don’t synergize with the various lessons we are learning then we cannot make progress, we would just continue in the circle. In Nigeria we find it easy to blame leaders; its the fault of so and so, it is not necessarily the fault of the leaders, in some cases, we the citizens are complicit, we are contributing to these things. We allow ourselves to be used and at the end we are the losers at the end of the day.
Kogi PDP internal litigation just ended with Musa Wada being declared as the authentic candidate how do feel?
My own view of all these litigation is that it is a fight within the family and there is a limit to which one should go at the end of the day only one person will be the candidate. A primary election where 13 aspirants participated and 11 of them say look Musa Wada is the winner we should all rally around that person and let him represent us. These positions are tenured, four years and maximum eight years so it will come to pass if we are lucky to be alive. Therefore I do not believe in acrimonious dragging of cases up and down, I don’t believe in do or die politics. You try, if it works fine and good if it does not thank God and move on. The problem I see disorganizing Nigerian politics is that people take politics as a profession, it is not supposed to be a profession it is more like a vocation. It is something you do outside your profession. Therefore if it doesn’t work you go back to your profession, if it works you contribute to improving lives of people. The motivation is helping to improve peoples lives, to improve the living and economic standards of our people. That should be the motivation in coming into politics but some take it as a profession, their only source of income and I think that is why we get into this sad issues of acrimonious litigation and instead of our politics to be determined by ideology and motivation to help improve the lives of our people it has become driven by material desires. The ambition to get into position and acquire inordinate wealth and all that. I think that is what is crowding the direction of our politics. So for me with regards to litigation the supreme court has spoken that is the end of the matter and I will appeal to all parties to come together and move forward. There will be another opportunity in three and half years time they can all try again. That is my advise to all the parties involved in the litigations.
Girl-child education key to nation building – Kikelomo Akande
Girl-child education key to nation building – Kikelomo Akande
Kikelomo Akande is a woman of many parts. Besides being a hardworking woman of substance, she is a businesswoman and philanthropist. Armed with a degree in Anatomy, today her focus is on girl-child education, bridging the gender gap as regards access to educational opportunities in the state. In this interview with Aisha Audu, she gives more insight into her NGO, challenges and her campaign on girl child education to
enable them contribute their quota to nation building.
By Aisha Audu
Can we meet you ma?
I am Kikelomo Akande, a graduate of University of Ilorin; with a BSC in Anatomy and an MBA, both from the University of Ilorin. I am married to Dr. Femi Akande and we are blessed with 3 children. I am the General Manager of Treasures Bakery and confectionaries in Lokoja, Kogi State.
What inspired you to venture into charity work?
I got the inspiration when I looked around me and identified several needs that I can proffer solution to. I got motivated to make a difference when I see children that can be great having no vision and direction. I get inspired when I see intelligent women with great talents wasting away.
The feeling of every action you take making a difference to another person’s life is truly incredible. There is no other feeling like it. The memories and feelings resulting from working for charity last a life time. When you come to the realization that a little here and a little there can make a great change then you become resolute in making positive impacts in people’s life.
You can choose between paying school fees of 2,000 for a child in public school rather than spending the money on something worthless. Like Barack Obama said change will not come if we wait for some other person or if we wait for some other time. We are the ones we have been waiting for. We are the change we seek. It is wonderful to know that, nobody needs to wait for a single moment before starting to improve the world.
What informed the idea of your NGO and what is it all about?
Our NGO is named ‘’SEND A CHILD TO SCHOOL’’ with great emphasis on GIRL CHILD- our vision at ‘’SACTSO’’ is to see children enroll at school and to finish, that is not to drop out of school due to lack of finance. With the help of God we have been able to make a significant difference in this area.
The NGO came about when I discovered that children drop out of school because of an amount as low as N1, 500. The school fee in most of our public school is between N 1, 000 to N2, 000 for most school and you discover that some parents can still not afford to pay, thereby making the children to drop out of school. This is what we should not allow to be happening. This is why I always say N1, 000 can change and mould a destiny.
We not only pay school fees, we are also concerned about the emotional welfare of the child, and we also encourage children to start reading as from their young age. This we did by buying books which includes educational, motivational and fictions for schools so as to create a mini library. We donated books to Bishop Delisle College, Muslim Community Secondary School, UBE Lokongoma. We hope to be able to do more and extend to other schools. We gave talks on drug abuse, sexual behavior and how to choose a career.
What is the core vision of the NGO?
Our core vision is promoting educational opportunities for less privileged children in our community because with education we believe you can become anything you want to be. An investment in knowledge pays the best dividends the profound words of Benjamin Franklin.
We at ‘’ SEND A CHILD TO SCHOOL’’ organization strongly believe and embrace this astute ideology and we are committed to do our very best in promoting the right of every Nigerian Child to quality education, disbursing our limited resources to support the less privileged, ensuring they are not totally marginalized.
We are aware of the enormous challenges inherited in our immediate environment, but we believe in moving forward and resources as sacrificial investment into the education of the less privileged children.
Education opens up the mind to new doors and doing new things, it makes the mind becomes curious and curiosity leads us down new paths, New solutions that will drive the nation of our dreams. Ensuring our world becomes a better place by liberating the minds through access to quality education, this is our mission at ‘’SACTSO’’ and we are staunchly committed to its achievements’’.
Can you shed light on some major activities you have carried out since it was founded?
We have provided uniforms, socks, school bags, books etc, because we believe in the dignity of every child, we go public schools at the beginning of every school session to pay school fees for the complete year. Over 250 pupils are beneficiaries till date.
We provide 2 sewing machines at Bishop Delishe to enhance the idea of the students getting involved in one vocational Skills or the other. We organized summer school (lesson) for students from JSS 1 to JSS3. This was started in the years 2017 till date. We were unable to do for the years because of the covid-19. It will interest you to know that 5 of our students were given scholarship by effective group of schools due to our activities that was seen by the proprietor of the school on our face book handle. Our face book address is ‘’send a child to school organization’’. You can check some of our activities on the page.
Bishop Delishe is our Pilot project for the Skill acquisition. We hope to be able to extend ton other schools with time and make it an ‘’ after school program’’. In summary this is what we do school tour (a motivational talk series), operation say no to DRUG ABUSE, provision of uniforms, text books and school material support, school fees and examination fee payment support, free holiday coaching classes, mobile library, vocational training with emphasis on fashion designs for schools. SACTSO is not for words alone, we believe in doing the needful. We believe in taking ‘’STEPS’’.
How are you coping with the challenge of funding?
Funding is a lifetime of any programme. For now a larger percentage of what we do is funded by my husband, Dr. Femi Akande Treasures Bakery and my humble self. We get support from a few individuals as well.
How would you describe the condition of the Girl Child in Nigeria?
The condition of the Girl Child is pathetic. So much is expected from a girl child and it could be overwhelming sometimes. A girl is exposed to so many abuses more than a boy child, but I think it is getting better by the day due to so many organizations creating awareness about the plight of a girl and various steps being taken to bring about change.
How would you want issues of rape tackled?
Issues of rape can be tackled when we as parents are deliberate about having honest conversation with our children both male and female, educating them about the consequences of their actions. Government should also prosecute rapists; this will go along to send warning to other rapists out there.
Also an idle hand is the devils workshop; our children must be kept busy positively at all times. We must engage them mentally, spiritually and physically and to teach them on how to work hard and be smart.
How do you spend your leisure time ma?
I read a lot. I can not over emphasise the importance of reading. I travel when there is an opportunity for me. There is really no time to relax, I am always doing one thing or the other but in the midst of it all, I try to put my legs up once in a while and pamper myself with good food.
Any last words for mothers and parents in general?
Engage your children positively. Let them learn a thing or two. It does not mean that is what they will become e.g taking bribe etc but the knowledge acquired can be useful in their chosen field later in the future. Ben Curson learnt how to play a musical instrument while in school which helped him in the mastering PRECISION which was later useful for him in neuro surgery.
Expose your children to books. It enlarges their vision. The popular saying that ‘’Readers are leaders is very true.
Bill for good life for Bokoharam repentants is weakness to tackle insecurity -senator Alex Kadiri
Bill for good life for Bokoharam repentants is weakness to tackle insecurity -senator Alex Kadiri
Senator Alex Usman Kadiri an APC stalwart, was a senator who represented Kogi East from 1999 to 2003, he expressed sadness over the level of insecurity, blaming security agencies for their failure.
What is your view of the bill seeking for repentant Bokoharam to be rehabilitated, sponsored for further studies abroad, after the destruction they have caused?
Well there are two ways of looking at this subject. I feel sad that my country cannot control the activities of this insurgency, whether Bokoharam, pure straightforward, terrorists, cattle rustlers, kidnappers, thugs and so on. It shows the weakness of Government. Giving them amnesty and scholarship to travel abroad for studies is bribery. It shows that the Government methods have failed they are looking for scapegoats but who tells you that after they return and there is no job waiting for them, they will not resume their act of terrorism? We went into amnesty in the south south because 95% of our income was coming from oil and these fellows were busy blowing up pipelines. Why is it impossible for the Nigerian Army, Nigerian police and the Nigerian Airforce to control insecurity. Every State is now affected, you cannot drive from Lokoja to Ayangba now before 10am or After 4pm, you can not go from here to Kaduna at any hour of the day. Most of the incidences are unreported.
Can we say the FG is overwhelmed?
The security situation has overpowered the Nigerian Government, we cannot pretend. That is why they are talking about amnesty, promoting a bill in the national assembly to make sure you give them blanket amnesty, send them for studies. All these things will not work on the long run. Let me ask this question, the people they sent for studies in Europe, how many of them completed the programs. A good number of them refused to come back and they did not enroll for any study and they are stranded there causing havoc. Those that returned did they come back to meet any work. Has insurgency or banditry ceased in Niger Delta because of the amnesty? No. We just need a good Government with good policies that will affect the majority of Nigerians. If the chaps in Bokoharam which we don’t even know whether they are Al-Qaeda, or ISIS or whatever, nobody knows who they are, we don’t even know who we are fighting, we don’t know who and who enter this country every hour from our northern borders or from the or from the West through Cotonou, we don’t know how many we are in this country our borders are porous, they are not guarded, not manned and those that are there manning them close the other eye collect bribe and allow them in. They come in with their arms and ammunitions, nobody is checking anybody.
What would say about Dr. Obadaih Mailafia’s disclosure?
When I listened to Dr. Obadaih Mailafia former deputy Governor of Tue CBN yesterday I shed tears for my country because he is a man who has a stake in this country, he was deputy Governor of CBN so he is a stakeholder in the Nigerian project and for him to say some of the things he said I feel sad for my country
How comes our service chiefs, Inspector general of police, director of DSS, director NIA, director Military intelligence, all of them are from the Northern part of the country where this problem is high, some of them are don’t have any idea as to his the problem can be solved. May be the president has more information than you and I have, that if he removes these persons the people he is likely to appear will not even measure up to the present people but at least it is better to try somebody else. It is a shame what we are passing through
Restructuring: Doctrine of necessity not applicable, says senator Alex Kadiri
Restructuring: Doctrine of necessity not applicable, says senator Alex Kadiri
Senator Alex Usman Kadiri an APC stalwart was a senator who represented Kogi East from 1999 to 2003, in this interview with the NationalUpdate in Abuja said the Doctrine of necessity can only be invoked when there is a serious issue like the death of Yaradua and the near death experienced by APC recently
The recent adoption of Doctrine of Necessity by the leadership of All Progressives Congress (APC) to address the intractable crisis within the party’s National Working Committee (NWC) has opened up discussions about the possibility that the nation could use such intervention to solve the problems of constitutional impediments, do you agree with that?
What the President did in sending the Adams Oshiomhole National Working Committee packing was the only option left for the party that was dying in Oshimhole’s we have cried, people like me have written, we have spoken, I have led delegations of Kogi people to meet with everybody that matters except the President, we met the Vice President twice. The party set up a reconciliation committee, the first was headed by Tony Momoh and the second one headed by General Garba, with Etteh, Etiebet as members, we cried, Adams Oshiomhole felt too powerful, too big, too insensitive and he was running the party as his personal property. No regular meetings were called and the few that were called when he speaks that would be the end. He was sending people to States as individuals to conduct primaries for the party, crooks, people who are known to be devils, criminals. They are sent to Kogi, Edo, Ondo and so in to go and conduct primary to elect Governor for the State on the platform of the party and people were wandering what that could mean, has the party gone to the dogs. The chairman and his deputy were not in talking terms that is Lawal Shaibu the deputy National chairman North, the secretary has gone to become Governor of Yobe State. When you go to the party office people would be waiting for whoever enters that office to give them money. That is why a man Like Governor Yahaya Bello is a king in that place. You can commit any blunder and come to the national secretariat to distribute cash, that is all they were waiting for. There is no structure, the staff were not catered for, no payment of salary everybody was grumbling so whoever enters there, no matter who he is even if he a a devil in human skin provided he is able to give them something to survive, the chairman of the party was feeding fat on the party. The President I am sure heard all these reports and he must have been fed up. Something had to give way, the other deputy national chairman Adebayo became minister, so the party was bereft of leadership. Oshiomhole was running the party from his house. If he says Alex Kadiri should go and be chairman of the panel to pick a candidate for us in Edo or Ondo, that is it, he makes criminals richer by that process. The public was watching us and the party was going down the drain. The party was at the point of death when the President intervened. So it was the doctrine of necessity that brought out the president into taking the action that he took and that has been able to save the party. The party is now moving ahead to stand on its own feet. So it was almost lying comatose.
How can, that model of the doctrine of necessity be brought to bare in other constitutional crises in the country?
I will not want to encourage it to be used anyhow. Let me take the tangential to another problem, look at the American President, Donald Trump, because he is not sure of winning the election he is now thinking of tinkering with the American election which has never been done, coming back home, if we think that we can solve all our problems through the doctrine of necessity, then we will end up killing the country. Supposed Buhari tomorrow feels that he wants to continue and have a third term just like Obasanjo tried and he gets people to start singing the chorus of the doctrine of necessity that is necessary for him to do another three years or fours to complete whatever he must have started then we are not practicing democracy. The doctrine of necessity can only be applied to very daring situations like the death of somebody like Yaradua, like the death of APC like Oshiomhole. Those are extreme circumstances under which this doctrine can be applied it shouldn’t be used anyhow.
The doctrine of necessity is like setting aside the constitution, what of the implication legally speaking, after the election in Edo if an aggrieved member decides to go to court?
That was what those of us leaders of this party are afraid of. Would you allow the party to die with Adams Oshiomhole sitting on the rot or we remove him and his cohorts from the leadership of the party so that the party can grow.
The elections in Edo and Ondo happen to have come at a period that these events were taking place. Any good party man, any honest party man who wants APC to grow, anybody who means well for this country would not go to court because of what has happened to this national working committee of the party because the decision of the President to dissolve the working committee hard wide acclamation, I sat down in my room here and I was very happy that the President cane out boldly to take that decision but you see he was very careful also. The primaries in Edo had been conducted just before he took that decision and he did not tamper with it. In his right senses he would have tampered with it, because here is Oshiomhole bringing a man as candidate of APC, unless you put Edo people at gun point, it is almost impossible or difficult for them to vote for him. Spoken words can not be swallowed after you have vomited it out. What Oshiomhole said about Eze Iyamu in 2016 they were so bad that EzeIyamu himself who never took Oshiomhole to court should be ashamed of coming out to ask for votes not to talk of the party whose chairman said so much about Ezeiyamu in 2016 now going around campaigning for him. We are just naked in this country, we play naked politics.
Can this doctrine of necessity, be applied in terms of the constitutional hurdle of restructuring and evolution of powers?
No, those are long drawn issues. Restructuring cannot be done on the table, you are not sharing food. These are issues that come out of discussions and if you continue to restructure because the situation is bad now, any time the situation goes bad the way it is today, then we restructure, then we keep restructuring that is not how to go. All we need are competent hands handling the affairs of our country. Competent and honest hands to run the affairs of this country. If we have honesty and competence at the helm of affairs at all levels from Local Government to state and Federal level nobody will complain.
Again I will go back to America since we are copying them, Nobody cares where Donald Trump actually came from or Hillary Clinton or the Husband, or Obama. They saw competence in them at the time they were elected.
Somebody can come from the smallest State in the US, Rhode Island and run for President, somebody can also come from the largest State California and run for election and lose. Nobody is looking at the size of where you come from, they are looking for somebody who can pull the country together, who can gather competent hands to run the country. Nigeria needs competent hands to run this country not friends. Honesty and competence is what we need. So I don’t believe that we can apply the doctrine of necessity to restructuring or to any other thing, no. When specific issues arise like the APC was dying or was almost dead under Oshiomhole or when Yaradua died as President of Nigeria, we evoked these doctrines because they were necessary at that point in time. We cannot apply to restructuring or anything like that, No.
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